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Feminism, celibacy, lesbianism and witchcraft

Many have seen feminism as a pandora box, an anarchy movement that aim to overthrow relationship between genders as we know them, emphasizing on the inequalities of patriarchate. Some radical feminists have even advocated the end of sexual relationship between men and women when they weren’t pushing agenda of separatism between gender and lesbianism. Feminism from its inception as always bathed in a universe of witchcraft paganism and reformatism of christian belief, making for example of Mary Magdalena the true heir of the christian faith.

Feminist views on sexuality widely vary. Many feminists, particularly radical feminists, are highly critical of what they see as sexual objectification and sexual exploitation in the media and society. Radical feminists are often opposed to the sex industry, including opposition to prostitution and pornography. Other feminists define themselves as sex-positive feminists and believe that a wide variety of expressions of female sexuality can be empowering to women when they are freely chosen. When sexuality can be understood as an essential element of the fulfillment of women, some feminists believe that sexual activity and marriage contribute to the oppression of women by patriarchate and thus often advocate abstinence, gender segregation and celibacy. The feminist group Cell 16, founded in 1968 by Roxanne Dunbar, was known for its program of celibacy and separation from men, among other things. Considered too extreme by many mainstream feminists, the organization acted as a sort of hard left vanguard It has been cited as the first organization to advance the concept of separatist feminism. In No More Fun and Games, the organization's radical feminist periodical, Cell Members Roxanne Dunbar and Lisa Leghorn advised women to "separate from men who are not consciously working for female liberation", but advised periods of celibacy, rather than lesbian relationships, which they considered to be "nothing more than a personal solution." The periodical also published Dana Densmore's article "On Celibacy" (October 1968), which stated in part, "One hang up to liberation is a supposed 'need' for sex. It is something that must be refuted, coped with, demythified, or the cause of female liberation is doomed.

Already we see girls, thoroughly liberated in their own heads, understanding their oppression with terrible clarity trying, deliberately and a trace hysterically, to make themselves attractive to men, men for whom they have no respect, men they may even hate, because of 'a basic sexual-emotional need.' Sex is not essential to life, as eating is. Some people go through their whole lives without engaging in it at all, including fine, warm, happy people. It is a myth that this makes one bitter, shriveled up, twisted. The big stigma of life-long virginity is on women anyway, created by men because woman's purpose in life is biological and if she doesn't fulfill that she's warped and unnatural and 'must be all cobwebs inside.'" The Feminists, A Political Organization to Annihilate Sex Roles, was a radical feminist group active in New York City from 1968 to 1973; at first advocated that women practice celibacy, and later came to advocate political lesbianism. Political lesbianism embraces the theory that sexual orientation is a choice, and advocates lesbianism as a positive alternative to heterosexuality for women. Heterosexuality, and even being in love was already seen by thinkers of feminism like Simone de Beauvoir, as a submission of the fairer sex, to patriarchy. The "slavery" of heterosexual love had to be fought because it would give pride to men.Sheila Jeffreys helped develop the concept of political lesbianism by co-writing with other members of the Leeds Revolutionary Feminist Group a pamphlet titled Love Your Enemy?: The Debate Between Heterosexual Feminism and Political Lesbianism, which stated, "We do think... that all feminists can and should be lesbians. Our definition of a political lesbian is a woman-identified woman who does not fuck men. It does not mean compulsory sexual activity with women." Thus, some political lesbians chose to be celibate or identified as asexual.Sexual liberation is also seen by some feminists as a tool of objectification of the woman who claims to be free, and is eager to have sex with different partners. The libertines contribute more to the pleasures of men even if they enjoy sex as well, when their sick roguery rather returns the image of the woman with dubious manners, that men can have easily.In April 1987 the manifesto of the Southern Women's Writing Collective, titled Sex resistance in heterosexual arrangements: Manifesto of the Southern Women's Writing Collective was read in New York City at a conference called "The Sexual Liberals and the Attack on Feminism”. This manifesto stated in part, "In contrast to the pro-sex movement, we are calling ourselves Women Against Sex (WAS)...The sex resister understands her act as a political one: her goal is not only personal integrity for herself but political freedom for all women. She resists on three fronts: she resists all male-constructed sexual needs, she resists the misnaming of her act as prudery and she especially resists the patriarchy's attempt to make its work of subordinating of women easier by consensually constructing her desire in its own oppressive image." For Diane Richardson : Most feminists would agree that men's power over women, economically and socially, affects sexual relationships; generally speaking women have less control in sexual encounters than their male partners and are subjected to a double standard of sexual conduct which favors men. Where feminists tend to differ is over the importance accorded to sexuality in understanding women's oppression. For many radical feminists sexuality is at the heart of male domination; it is seen as a key mechanism of patriarchal control (Rowland and Klein, 1996). Indeed, some writers have argued that it is the primary means by which men exercise and maintain power and control over women.Several solutions to get rid of the oppression of men by sexuality have been advocated. Also, Lesbian separatism is a form of separatist feminism specific to lesbians. Separatism has been considered by lesbians as both a temporary strategy and as a lifelong practice. Many lesbian separatists bought land, so they could live separately from men and heterosexual women.

Lesbian separatism became popular in the 1970s as some lesbians doubted whether mainstream society or even the LGBT movement had anything to offer them. In 1970, seven women (including lesbian activist Del Martin) confronted the North Conference of Homophile Organizations about the relevance of the gay rights movement to the women within it. The delegates passed a resolution in favor of women's liberation, but Del Martin felt they had not done enough, and wrote "If That's All There Is", an influential 1970 essay in which she decried gay rights organizations as sexist. In the summer of 1971, a lesbian group calling themselves "The Furies" formed a commune open to lesbians only, where they put out a monthly newspaper called The Furies. "The Furies" consisted of twelve women, aged eighteen to twenty-eight, all feminists, all lesbians, all white, with three children among them. They shared chores and clothes, lived together, held some of their money in common, and slept on mattresses on a common floor They also started a school to teach women auto and home repair, so they would not be dependent on men. Charlotte Bunch, an early member of The Furies, viewed separatist feminism as a strategy, a "first step" period, or temporary withdrawal from mainstream activism to accomplish specific goals or enhance personal growth. Other lesbians, such as Lambda Award winning author Elana Dykewomon, have chosen separatism as a lifelong practice. In addition to advocating withdrawal from working, personal or casual relationships with men, The Furies recommended that Lesbian Separatists relate "only (with) women who cut their ties to male privilege" and suggest that "as long as women still benefit from heterosexuality, receive its privileges and security, they will at some point have to betray their sisters, especially Lesbian sisters who do not receive those benefits". This was part of a larger idea that Bunch articulated in Learning from Lesbian Separatism (1976), that "in a male-supremacist society, heterosexuality is a political institution" and the practice of separatism is a way to escape its domination.

The practice of lesbian separatism incorporates concepts related to homosexual nationalism, political lesbianism and spiritual lesbianism, because the idea of a male God is also refuted. The lesbians in the spiritual profile tend to deify the woman while attributing real power to the goddesses in a pantheon they find in ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, ancient Celtic Europe and Paganism. Also, some individuals who identify as Lesbian separatists are also associated with the practice of Dianic paganism. Dianic Wicca, also known as Dianic Witchcraft, is a neopagan religion of female-centered goddess ritual and tradition. A cult originating from ancient Greece that inherited ancient Rome. This cult is very present in Hollywood the city of the stars who like Rome would have been dedicated to the goddess Diana. Diana was known as the virgin goddess of childbirth and women. She was one of the three virgin goddesses, with Minerva and Vesta, who vowed never to marry.

While some adherents identify as Wiccan, it differs from most traditions of Wicca in that only goddesses are honored (whereas most Wiccan traditions honor both female and male deities). While there is more than one tradition that calls itself Dianic, the best known is the female-only variety, founded by Zsuzsanna Budapest in the United States in the 1970s. It is notable for its worship of a single Goddess and focus on egalitarian, matriarchal feminism. The term 'womyn's lands' has been used in America to describe communities of lesbian separatists. Christianity is not spared by lesbian spirituality, so the mystical inheritance of Christ according to the lesbian theory would rather belong to Marie Magdalene a theory celebrated in the best-selling book Da Vinci Code by the American author Dan Brown. In Islam the Kabah would rather be the reverence to Bilquis, Isis or Semiramis. Read more at

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