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  • Hubert Marlin

Underdevelopment natural conditions and populations


On January 20, 1949, in his State of the Union address, US President Harry Truman used the word "underdeveloped" for the first time. While the cold war was in its early stages, the US president had realized that a formula had to be found to put a good part of the world under the Western yoke, by stating that the U.S., would launch a bold program to save the Third World countries from misery. it gave the starting point for a policy of neo-colonization that would impose a crisis system in the so-called underdeveloped countries. The slight improvement in the 60s and 70s in the so called underdeveloped countries was due to a factor that was soon forgotten in the annals of history after the Second World War.

The United States with schemes like the lend lease that allowed countries at war to buy arms and commodities during the war ended up with huge financial surpluses. And it was vital to reintroduce that money into the market to avoid inflation. Europe will benefit from the Marshall Plan, which allowed it to rebuild itself even faster because the United States wanted to counter the influence of the Soviet Union in the Western bloc. The U.S. had to supplant the world Bank action with the Marshall Plan. The World Bank, which was originally called the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, was the first orgsane called in the reconstruction of the devastated Europe. The founding text in July 1945 assigned to it, two main objectives. To contribute to the financing of the reconstruction of the countries destroyed during the World War II ; and to give loans for the development of backward countries, the phrase commonly used before the vocabulary of underdeveloped and developing countries became broad. While Europe will benefit from the Marshall Plan, the world bank, which also benefited from large liquidity because it is directly linked to the US government, will try to invest this money in the Third World economies. The situation will be even more favorable because from the 1960s, almost all of Europe is rebuilt and this reconstruction will create another bubble that will generate European financial flows, which will be invested in the extractive economies of the third world , influencing the local economic fabric, with cash crops and machinery used for the extraction of raw materials, such as the railroad for the transport of timber, ports, or the construction of mines and the establishment of oil exploitation facilities.. By the 1970s, the investments that were going to plummet the future of the Third World countries, with their unequal agreements signed during the fictitious independence with the colonial powers, reached their point of satiety. Third World countries which had initially benefited from loans based on insignificant interest and therefore hoped to repay as soon as possible the credits contracted to the World Bank, and European banks, such as the Club of Rome, or Paris, will be caught in a lethal trap, with the debt crisis, knowingly created to harm the emergence of former colonies and plunge them into perpetual servitude.The 80s will see an upward revision of interest rates, and worse the terms of trade, will be wobbled obeying only the mood of Western countries, that in fact had invested with profits generated from the plan Marshall and the World Bank loans, not to help the underdeveloped countries to grow, but to better service their enslaving operation of the third world. Thus, began a crisis system. However, It should be noted, that in 1945 France pushed cynicism further, by creating an even more predatory system with the CFA, franc inspired by the Nazi occupation of France. France through the CFA ploy, cashed all monies of economic transactions in the FCFA zone at the international level to supposedly guarantee the convertibility of the CFA franc and protect the "free" zone from the turmoil of the global economic situation. Worse, when the so-called French-speaking Africa under the CFA, trades directly with France, it does not receive any foreign devise from France in exchange, but simply a new entry in its operating account lodged at the Banque de France controlled by the French treasury. The trusteeship of an object of sovereignty of States, as the currency remains the largest holdup that the world has ever known; because by this colonial tax, it is estimated that France alone recovers 400 billion euros from the economies of its former colonies, a jackpot that allows it to remain a Western power. From 1945 to 1973, when Africans exported, for example, raw materials for $ 100 billion, they deposited all $ 100 billion in the French Treasury. From 1973 to 2005, if they exported 100 billion dollars, Africans were obliged to deposit 65 billion, in the French Treasury in the famed account of operations. From September 20, 2005 to the present day, Africans of the CFA Zone deposit 50% of their economic income in this account. And it should be noted that by controlling the printing of banknotes as well, France can decide to freeze the funds of a rebellious governments paralyzing the life of countries and forcing the resignation of these leaders.The misfortune of some is the happiness of others, or rather some create the misfortune of others to be happy. Crisis means according to the Chinese ideogram, opportunity and danger as well. This imply in the notion of irreverent capitalism, profit for some, proponents of the system, implies poverty for others undergoing the system. If the engine of a car is smart, the wheels that support the vehicle and move it forward are less so. Similarly, those who have created the current economic system and imposed it on the world benefit from it, and those who do not know the ins and outs of this system suffer its weight while being the driving force.Perpetual underdevelopment in Africa and in most of the southern hemisphere is not a passing crisis, but a crisis system to which some people are ingenious in manipulating the masses over responsibilities. Underdevelopment kills, it is one of the deadliest phenomena that has ever existed. Misery being the mother of all vices, how many die for lack of primary health care? And how many take the perilous paths of exile, when wars in general are rooted in the deterioration of the standard of living and the predation of Western powers that until proven otherwise, are the largest purveyors of arms to these underdeveloped regions? In a void determinism, some have often accused nature of having been ungrateful with the underdeveloped countries or over abundant towards stupid peoples, who do not know how to exploit their riches. However, the truth is more complex.According to Montesquieu, in the spirit of the laws published in the 18th century. Far from being reduced to a determinism that would forever condemn people to poverty, it is rather important to define the order behind the diversity of manners and the ways of governing. Even if the climate has a direct influence on the temperament and character of the individuals, if the disposition to work, for example, is linked to the climate, specific institutional measures can remedy this. Montesquieu writes: "That the bad legislators are those who favored the climate vices, and the good ones are the ones who opposed it.

" It is thus always possible to orient the paths traced by nature differently. The climates and the reliefs have in general nothing to do with the development it is rather the setting up of the appropriate policies of development, which changes the deal. So, the problem is not at the level of natural regions, but of States or human regions. The annals of history prove that, tropical, Mediterranean, or equatorial regions managed to develop in not always perfect environments, for the simple reason that the system governing their economies was different. Indeed in an environment where there was no Western predation, civilizations such as that of ancient Egypt, the Maya and Inca in Latin America, or the empire of Mali, managed to develop, in areas that may have been damaged over time, but the main damage is sometimes attributed to the Western predation system, such as slavery, colonization, uncontrolled exploitation of forest species, and destruction of the environment, natural pollution, or the creation of hydroelectric dams to supply factories that contribute to the extractive economy of underdeveloped countries. Agricultural and then urban civilization first appeared in Africa, the Middle East, India, China, Andean or Central America, in short, in many of the countries where current underdevelopment prevails. Economic progress is dependent on the advancement of profit-oriented techniques of populations of the regions involved, and not on the level of technology of the exogenous forces exploiting the said regions. Societies measure their progress primarily in terms of their ability to dominate, and to use natural factors, to humanize and rationalize the development of the physical environment. From a perspective where farm investments are only for the profit of debt-producing countries, it is a vicious circle in which Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Pacific countries languish. Since the beginning of the scheme of exploitation and enslavement crowned by the control of the World Bank which imposes the sectors of investment of the exploited countries, the figures prove that more than 8 times the amount of the debt of underdeveloped countries at the beginning the 80s has been paid back, but the scam of the system is precisely linked to the pattern of its perpetuation.The situation of these countries is mostly illusory because they are forced to invest in sectors that in the long term prolong their enslavement such as debt repayment and investment in cash crops or export monoculture, whose prices are fixed by the buyer countries, a paradox that reinforces the servile clichés of the relations between the West and the Third World, because in all the economies of the world it is the producers who put a price on their products not the opposite, because they alone can judge efforts and cost of production. While cash crops remain preponderant, starving the population by occupying land that should have been used for food crops intended for the local market, it should be noted that several treaties with the Western powers prevent the so-called countries of the third world from transforming the raw materials into manufactured products. The coltan that is taken from Congo for a handful of dollars, is sent back in cellphones in a price that is almost out of reach of ordinary Congolese. Developing countries are the poorest on the planet. Not because they are cursed, and if there is a curse it is the Western predation that falls on them. When one talks about democracy another cache-sex used ostentatiously to hide the real problems of the African continent, it is rather the terms of trade that must be democratized. It is the dictatorship of the Bretton Woods institutions that will have to be revisited, in a world that is becoming more and more multipolar. Even in the West the problem of misery becomes more and more recurrent with the abyssal gap that divides the rich, and the poor. According to the Oxfam report, in 2017 About 82% of the money generated went to the richest 1% of the world, who represents about 70 million of the world's population, when the poorest have not seen any improvement. in their plight, the rich have added $ 762 billion in profits to their assets a staggering amount that alone could have curbed poverty seven times around the world.85 peoples out of the 1 per cent are super rich who own the multinationals, which contribute greatly to misery in the Third World, alone they have more money than half of the world's populations including the rich.When one talk about controlling the population to counter misery in the spheres of Western governments, controlled by this oligarchy, it’s pure Machiavellian heresy. It is not the famed overpopulation of regions like Africa that is problematic. A false assertion when one looks at the number of inhabitants per square kilometer and the area of the continent. It is not the growth of the population that gives rise to underdevelopment but rather the system that directs humans, which favor their misery or their evolution.

Moreover, there is an undeniable link between economic progress and the reduction of high birth rates, because, most countries that have experienced a high rate of economic growth have recorded a rapid fall in fertility. This is the case for countries like South Korea, Taiwan and China in Asia. In the early 1960s, these countries, had an average of 5 to 6 children per woman, a similar average in sub-Saharan Africa, today. In 15 years, the fertility of these countries has dropped by half, which corresponds to the years of their economic take-off. Despite the fact that there is power in the number, since population growth is a development factor, It is underdevelopment that leads to overpopulation, for example, in a country, enough schooled, how many women choosing to continue higher education, at the same time would choose to have children? And better, when one is over 25 years old, with higher degrees, professional requirements in turn significantly reduce the birth rate. The misfortune of the one who mistreats everyone is to find no friend in its misery, when a world seems to collapse and that Africa and the rest of the third world are finding new partners to team up with in the East; the West despite its technologies that is 90 percent made in Asia, is at a crossroads, while most of the resources it needs for its industry continue to come from underdeveloped countries, to survive in the coming years it will have to let go off the ballast and democratize its economic relations with the third world, if not it will lose everything, because the war in Syria has proved that even the military domination of the West is no longer effective, as it was 10 years ago. The explosion of demography in Africa will no longer maintain dictatorships that have since pledged allegiance to the West, often sacrificing the interests of the people for their folding seats. The future is Africa, which despite the boom of its population has enough resources to evolve, if the bottlenecks of Western capitalism that strangles it are destroyed. And as far as immigration is concerned, the West will need the youth of the third world countries to pay for its retirement system with its population that is set to be even older in the next 30 years. The retirement system will run at a loss if there is not enough productive energy, no offense to the fundamental nationalism that seems to take root in the northern hemisphere. Read more at www.flashmag.net

Hubert Marlin Elingui Jr

.Journalist


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