• Hubert Marlin

Genetics and Migration: The evidence of science on the settlements of ancient Egypt and sub-Saharan

Speculations about the history of the peoples of the world are going well, often inspired by indecipherable writings whose comprehension is full of a plethora of allegories, which add to the vicissitudes of time and space, rendering the quest of truth a problematic task. The pride and self-esteem of the people, the story narrated by the bellicose does not match up, with the veracity of the facts. Science is being held hostage in wacky agendas, because it is used by some just to prove truths that they want to possess to ennoble their caste, and ensure their preponderance over the rest of humanity. It remains difficult despite the progress of science, to have access to the historical reality which is manipulated to corroborate supremacist theories.

DNA testing, without providing irrefutable evidence, is now a tool indispensable while seeking for the truth about migration and settlements around the world. Ancient Egypt, remains the most disputed land, it is important to refocus the debate on the coloring that genetics seems to give to the people who once inhabited Kemet, while the use of satellites and radar imagery boldly tend to confirm the most convincing theses on the migration of peoples in the Mediterranean, Eurasian and African regions. With recent finds the term Africa south of the Sahara, should be banned from the vocabulary because it cultivates in the popular imagination a division between the peoples of the north and south of the continent. A division that did not exist in the past, since the homogeneity of genetic markers seems to prove the homogeneity of the African population from north to south. Satellite imagery is now formal the Sahara, until less than 5000 years ago while ancient Egypt was at its peak, was wet and traveled by large rivers that went from the great lakes to Tamanrasset in the plain of Hoggar mountains south of present-day Algeria. The Nile flowed from the north to the south connecting to the Congo River, reaching even the Sanaga river thousands of kilometers south of the continent. All these channels and rivers logically would have allowed a greater dispersion of populations that DNA research confirms. The myth of ancient Africans who did not master waters with this find cannot be less laughable. Because it is impossible to think that surrounded by so many rivers and given the similar dissemination of genetic markers the peoples of Africa could not navigate. Even if the mystical allegories on the migrations of people like the Fang Beti of Central Africa, that would have been made on the back of a snake while fleeing away from Hyksos and Assyrians who invaded their cradle of ancient Egypt or even more recently during the Arab Muslims conquests of the 7th century and the Muslim proselytism of 18 and 19 century of Ousmane Dan Fodjo, adds only to confusion.

A genealogical DNA test, is a DNA-based test that examines specific locations of a person's genome to determine ancestral ethnicity and genealogical relationships. The results provide information about which ethnic groups the subjects may be from, and other individuals to whom they may be related.

Three main types of genealogical DNA tests are available, each of them examining a different part of the genome, is useful for different types of genealogical research. The autosomal, the mitochondrial, and the Y.

In general, genealogical DNA tests do not provide information on medical conditions or diseases. Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA can be used to find a haplogroup, which is unequally distributed geographically. A haplogroup is a group of genetic populations or peoples who share a common paternal or maternal ancestor. The haplogroups receive letters of the alphabet, and the refinements which consider mutation of genes, consist of combinations of numbers and additional letters.

Mitochondrial DNA follows the direct maternal lineage, namely, feminine ancestors and female parents. It’s transmitted only to female descendants, while Y-DNA that follows the paternal line, it’s passed on to all male children.

Males have both types of chromosomes, the Y chromosome, and X chromosome; while females with X X chromosomes, do not have Y-DNA because they do not have a Y chromosome that determines the male sex.

Geneticists until 2013, believed that all male humans descended from the paternal lineage of a single man baptized Y-chromosomal Adam, who probably lived between 60,000 and 140,000 years ago. Also, A genealogical tree was drawn showing how men would descend from this individual. And the different branches of this tree are what is called haplogroups.

In 2013 an African American, Albert Perry who had just died had his DNA tested by his sister who wanted to know the family tree. To their surprise When Family Tree DNA scientists tried to place Perry on the sequences of the Y chromosome family tree, based on Adam's chromosome, they could not find any combination matching. His Y chromosome was unlike any other analyzed so far. Michael Hammer, a geneticist from the University of Arizona at Tucson, heard about Perry's unusual Y chromosome and did other tests. The research of his team revealed something extraordinary, Perry did not come down from Adam. In fact, his Y chromosome was so distinct that it was estimated that his male line probably separated from all others about 338,000 years ago. In a deeper analysis, Hammer's team examined an African database of nearly 6,000 Y chromosomes, and found similarities between Perry and samples taken from 11 men, all living in a village on the Cameroon coast. These eleven men are from the Mbow ethnic group, to which Albert Perry and his family should descend.

It goes without saying that the transatlantic trade in slavery had brought many Africans from the West African coast, to the American continent. If the case of Albert Perry question thesis that defend the beginning of humanity to about 200 000 years because the oldest bones until now, date from about this time, it also seems to defend the thesis according to which the African modern man has not known mutation, because the dating of a cross breeding that would have been encrypted about 338 000 years ago, proves that if in some parts of the world, hominids or humanoid such as the Neanderthal, could be seen, in Africa humans as we know them today, already existed.

The discovery of the Y chromosome of Albert Perry and his cousins of the Mbow ethnic group confirms another thesis that was thought strictly related to oral tradition. In the genesis of the Sawa people in its transhumance to the coast of Cameroon, it is said that the Mbow people already lived on the banks of the Wouri river when the Douala and Bassa'a joined them from ancient Egypt. Perry and his Cameroonian cousins are at the base of the creation of the new original Haplogroup that was named A00. It now precedes the A1 which is also from Africa, but which appearance seems more recent. Direct-to-consumer DNA testing companies have often labeled haplogroups by continent or ethnicity (for example, an "African haplogroup" or a "Viking haplogroup"), but these labels may be speculative or misleading. Autosomal DNA is contained in the 22 pairs of chromosomes that are not involved in determining a person's sex. Autosomal DNA recombines each generation. In principle, the new descendants receive a set of chromosomes from each parent. These are inherited exactly equally from both parents and almost equally from grandparents. Therefore, the number of necessary clarification markers received with a specific ancestor decreases by about half each generation. This means an individual receives half of his markers from each parent, about a quarter of his markers from each grandparent; about one-eighth of the markers from each great-grandparent, etc. The inheritance is more random and unequal, as the ancestors are far away. Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA tests can determine with which peoples of present-day Africa a person directly shares some of his ancestry, but historical patterns of migration and historical events obscure the trace of ancestral groups. The Y chromosome is a sequence of 60 million "characters" (nucleobases), compared to only 16,569 for mitochondrial DNA. The Y chromosome therefore offers a much higher resolution because mutations are more frequent and occur in each generation.

In contrast, mutations in mitochondrial DNA are much rarer. Since the time of mitochondrial Eve, about 200,000 years ago, humans have averaged 20 mutations of mitochondrial DNA in each line - about one every 10,000 years. Although the number of mutations has accelerated with the surge in the human population over the last 10,000 years, dating of mitochondrial DNA lineages remains highly approximate and virtually useless for historical periods. However, by sequencing the entire Y chromosome, it is theoretically possible to map the whole patrilineal genealogy of humanity or any other species with a precision of a few generations, and even to the next generation. Y-DNA is more interesting in understanding genealogy because men have traditionally been less mobile than women, except during military invasions, such as among Indo-Europeans, Vikings or Arabs, and ancient Assyrians and Babylonians in Egypt. In almost every sedentary and agricultural society, men are the ones who inherit from their parents, and thus remain in the same place, from generation to generation. Women, on the other hand, have often been married in other villages or towns. This helped their lineages to spread more evenly over time, gradually erasing patterns of ancient settlements. The presence of Africans in Europe goes back a very long time, which left traces in the genealogy. There appears to have been several migrations in the Paleolithic (more than 2.5 million years ago) and the Mesolithic (10,000 to 5,000 BC) from Northwest Africa to the Iberian Peninsula.

The oldest may have brought the West African paternal A1a haplogroup to western and northern Europe, during the Paleolithic. A1, which is now less ancient than the A00, from Albert Perry and the Mbow of Cameroon, has been found in modern populations as far removed from Africa as Ireland, Scotland, Scandinavia and Finland. The legend of black Vikings is very popular in Iceland and Sweden, although no archaeological finds have confirmed this legend, the genetic legacy seems to prove the passage of Africans in the Nordic countries. The presence of maternal lineages African L2, L3 and probably also L1b1 is attested in the Iberian Peninsula during the Neolithic period. The presence of the Moors of the Christian era as early as the 8th century, would in fact be the continuation of a long habit of the African presence in Europe. The African occupation has touched the most remote corners of Europe. Also, a small percentage of autosomal DNA from sub-Saharan Africa was identified in the late Mesolithic Swedish period of perforated ceramic culture (2800-2000 BCE). This would imply that the A1a gene was already present in Northern Europe at that time. Another Mesolithic sample from Loschbour in Luxembourg had darker hair and a much darker skin than modern Europeans. The haplogroup most sought after by genetics since it seems to be found everywhere, where there have been vestiges of civilization is the R1B, because it is related to sedentary behavior, with domestication, cattle breeding and the creation of cities that followed. Some researchers seem to place the R1B1 origin in the Caucasus, or in the Iberian Peninsula while it is unclear how the same gene is encountered in the depths of the equatorial forest among the Fang people of Cameroon in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea as in northern Cameroon among the so-called Chadic peoples, where the prevalence can reach 95 percent in male subjects.

However, it is important to consider the theory of the colonization of the world by the modern African man, with his emigration out of Africa and his re emigration to Africa. The circulation of populations around the world is not sporadic but linear and extended over time.

R1B1 has also been discovered in Asia, and among the indigenous peoples of America. This expansion of R1b1 would explain a migration of African populations towards Asia, and worse the migrations would not be fixed because in many cases the examples of emigration that the geo-genetics seems to detect are in fact movements which would be linked to frequent trips in both ways, of groups of individuals from one point to another. Also, it would be important to note that those who travelled thousands of years ago in the Nile which was connected to the Congo River, Niger, Senegal and Sanaga, while the Sahara was wet and crossed by huge canals, knew for sure where they were going. It is time to destroy the primitive imagery, that seems to be de facto attributed to the ancient peoples. Migrations under the constraint of wars and natural conditions will only come later with the onset of the drought in the Sahara some 5000 years ago. The presence of the R1B1 gene in Native American populations such as Algic language speakers in Central Canada, may well be related to Africans travelling to the Americas or to the migration of Native American populations from Asia.

In any case, in 1878 Dr. Masson in his articles on the Edinburg Review Critical Journal - Page 451, stated that the indigenous peoples of the Canadian highlands were descendants of Black Celts, who spoke Gaelic and had African faces. What was difficult to believe in the 19th century, seems to be confirmed with DNA analysis in the 21st century. If some researchers seem to link the presence of R1b1 among the Bushmen of southern Africa to a migration from the region of ancient Egypt during Paleolithic period about 2.5 million years ago, as the Bushmen would not have brought with them the more recent Eurasian genes, this is not true for the rest of the Bantu peoples of Africa. Although in the history of the Bushmen and other Bantu peoples, if they would have left Egypt under the pressure of the invading Eurasian peoples at a more recent time, it is normal that they do not carry these genes because one does not fly away from peoples to mingle with them.

The R1B1 gene has subsets or markers that relate to its mutation. Also, the R1B1 (M269) is the derivative that is found in Western Europeans of the Caucasian race. This mutation occurred about 5,000 years ago, as did the R1B1 (M73) found more in Eastern Europe. This corroborates the claims that the so-called white race only appeared about 5,000 years ago. The controversial analysis of the mummy of Tutankhamun that would have revealed the presence of R1B1 (M269) is confusing especially when it’s well known that this mummy discovered by Westerners on November 4, 1922 (the English Lord Carnarvon) has been handled for almost a century by hundreds of peoples without in their mind the idea of preserving it for a DNA test. A technology that will be available only in second half of the 20th century. the mummy of Tutankhamun throughout years spent in Western museums and laboratories has inevitably been contaminated with Western DNA. At the time of the 18th dynasty the type M269 did not exist in Egypt and worse in the royal lineage, because it is well known that marriages were made in the intimacy of the royal Egyptian families.

The R1B1 M269 will enter the royal lineage of Egypt with the arrival of the Ptolemaic dynasty of ancient Greece from 332 to 30 BC, about a thousand years after the death of Tutankhamen who intervened in 1327 BC. And better today only 2 % of the Egyptian population carries the gene R1B1 M269, it would have received during colonial periods, Greek, Roman and English, while this gene is present in nearly 80 percent of Westerners. Unless there is the very unlikely hypothesis that Tutankhamen was the first of its lineage to undergo mutation of the R1B1 gene. An unlikely combination seen the predominant case of mutation of the African R1B1 lineage to the marker R1B1 (V88). The R1B1 V88 is the haplogroup that was mostly found in Pharaonic Egypt. It is strictly related to the domestication of cattle and the construction of civilizations. Research on R1B1-V88 tends to point its origin in northern Mesopotamia. The two branches of R1B1 probably separated shortly after the domestication of cattle about 10,500 years ago (8,500 BC). Considering the theory of out of Africa and remigration to Africa, the R1B1-V88 migrated south towards the Levant and Egypt. Cattlemen then spread to most of North and East Africa. The Sahara Desert, which was wetter during the Neolithic sub pluvial period (circa 7250-3250 BC), had a vast savannah full of grass, an ideal environment for cattle breeding. R1B1-V88 is among the indigenous peoples of Rwanda, South Africa, Namibia, Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau. The wide distribution of V88 in all parts of Africa, its impact among the tribes of herders supports the theory of an African pharaonic Egypt. The decline of the V88 in Egypt is strictly linked to the migratory movement of the populations that make up today's sub-Saharan Africa, out of Egypt, and from what is now the Maghreb. 1 to 4%, R1b1-V88 is found in the Levant, among Lebanese, Druze and Jews, and almost in all African countries north of the equator. The frequency is higher in Egypt (5%), and (23%) among the Berbers of the Egyptian-Libyan border. (15%), among the Sudanese Copts. (40%) among Hausas in Sudan. (54%), among the Peuhls of the Sahel in Niger and Cameroon. In the Chadian tribes of northern Nigeria and northern Cameroon (especially among the Kirdi), it is observed at a frequency ranging from 30% to 95% in male subjects. And a case that is out of the ordinary, its prevalence at curious percentages among the Fang Beti of southern Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, between 50 and 90%. A scientific observation that joins the fables of the oral tradition in Gabon where for example it is said that "Oyono Ada Ngone, one of the mythical ancestors of the Fang people, putative inventor of the martial version of Mvet (folk guitar) according to Tsira Ndong Ndoutoume, was a tall, athletic man, who had magical powers and light brown skin. Their Beti cousin in southern Cameroon, state that the ancestor Nanga also had light brown skin and was an undefeatable warrior. A light Brown skin that would correspond to the phenotype (physical characteristic) that would confer R1B1. However, beyond Fang Beti fables, further north in Cameroon, the similarities of language between the Mandara and Tamil peoples that are encountered in India proves that these two groups, which together share R1B1, are cousins, what was suspected by skepticism to be hazardous similarities in linguistics is confirmed in DNA stigmas. Also, according to some Indian researchers, the term Cameroon originally would be Kamamhoor or land of love or friendship. Meanwhile the word Cameroon which would come from the Portuguese, in reference to shrimps of the mouth of the Wouri River, would have simply been poorly written and Europeanized, especially since one knows that before the arrival of Portuguese in Cameroon maps describing the kingdoms of Mandara already existed. Maps like the one of Piri Reis of the 16th century which itself was inspired by the Arab maps of the 7th century could well have described this region as Kamamhoor. The French word Camarade, (Comrade) would be a derivation of this word.

The debate over the linguistic influence of African languages on European languages remains hidden because it calls into question an absolutely white Europe. In any case the American linguist Dr. G.J.K. Campbell-Dunn believes that an examination of the language spoken by the Basques proves a Niger-Congo substratum. He believes that the languages of Niger-Congo and Basque of Iberia peninsula share personal pronouns, and a significant number of vocabulary items. The DNA analysis confirms the links between these two peoples because they share genetic markers derived from R1B1, such as M2, or M173, also found in eastern Europe.

Apart from constant migrations in the great rivers of Africa, it can nevertheless be noted that the periods that favored large migratory movements from north to south are strictly linked to historical events. At the end of the Nubian dynasty on the throne of Egypt with the defeat of Tunatamun against the Assyrians in 656 BC a great wave of ancient Egyptians will emigrate to Nubia and the island of Meroe which today is totally desiccated, the others will go further south through the Sahara, which was already beginning to lose its wetness. As the climatic factor increased, some populations no longer travelled back up to the north. In a second time, in 641, 7th century AD, the Islamic conquest of Egypt will eventually remove another wave of Egyptians that Arab Muslims called Copts. The Kirdis of northern Cameroon, a pagan term in Kanuri (language spoken in Nigeria), also comes from Nubia and ancient Egypt. The prevalence of more than 95% of the R1B1 V88 genes makes them with the Fang Beti of the equatorial forest direct descendants of ancient Egypt and Nubia. While the darkest complexion encountered in the north Cameroun and southern Chad is linked to Nubia as the South Soudan today the lighter complexion encountered sometimes in the metropolitan ancient Egyptian can be related to the Fang Beti even to the Bushmen of southern Africa. The date of creation of the Kanem empire that intervened between the 7th and 8th century coincides with the capture of Sudan (Nubia) and Egypt by the Arab Muslim conqueror in 641 . In the 18th and 19th century the Nubian Rabah will become the Sultan of this empire, which had its capital at Dikoa, Rabah had made a name for himself in memorable battles against the colonialists at the dawn of the 20th century. Even though he is accused of slavery by French historical literature while he reigned at a period when slavery was already abolished Rabih az-Zubayr died on April 22nd 1900 in the Battle of Kousseri against the French colonial army where the Commander Lamy who gave his name to Fort Lamy will also lose his life. Read more At

Hubert Marlin


Thanks to Rosa Kamson: compilation of ancient genetic data EgyptMarc Mvé Bekale: Meditations on the origin of the Fangs.The African Origins of Classical Civilisation by GJK Campbell-Dunn


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